Sterilisation means eradication of microorganisms, for example by temperatures higher than 100 degrees Celsius. For hygienic reasons, process tanks and tubes in the pharmaceutical and food industries must be sterilised on a regular basis. This is done by flushing the system with vapour hotter than 120 degrees Celsius. This operation is called sterilisation-in-place (SIP) as the installation is cleaned in situ.

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